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LUDWIG GUMPLOWICZ’. I. KOCHANOWSKI. Member of the International Institute of Sociology, Paris. WARSAW, August Deeply moved, still suffering from. (–)A Polish sociologist, Social Darwinist, and materialist, who argued that social evolution represented a struggle for economic resources resulting in. Ludwig Gumplowicz (–), of PolishJewish parentage, was professor of public law at the University of Graz, Austria, from until his death. He is best.

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Copyright The Columbia University Press. In his system, the individual and his motives were useless abstractions.

It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Don’t have an account? Rollin Chambliss; Outlines of Sociology. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Further Reading Gumplowicz’s influence on racism is discussed in William M. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gumplowicz’s most important works include Rasse und StaatDer Rassenkampfand Grundriss der Sociologie ; the latter is his only work that has been translated into English by Frederick W.

Sociology, a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the gumppowicz that preserve and change them. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikisource.

Ludwig Gumplowicz |

A recent evaluation of Gumplowicz’s significance is in the second English-language edition of his Outlines of Sociologyedited and with an introduction and notes by Irving Horowitz.

With the development of social and political institutions, the activities of the primary classes of rulers, merchants, and exploited masses created a need for secondary or derived classes, such as priests, professional men, and artisans.

The motive in all conquests has been the desire for the material gain that may gumpllwicz obtained by exploiting the labor ludiwg the conquered. Sign in to annotate. That which is unique about social phenomena arises from human groups in interaction rather than from the behavior of individuals abstracted from the influence of association and dissociation.


Whatever form the struggle of classes within the state has taken, it has provided the dynamic core of history []pp. According to Gumplowicz, the state originates in the conflict among races, which in turn are simply primitive groups.

This struggle replaces individual struggle in his theory of evolution.

To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Laws are determined by victory in class struggles rather than by any notion of abstract justice. Another important aspect of Gumplowicz’s work includes the distinction he made between simple, limited groupings organized on the basis of consanguinity and community of culture, on the one hand, and compound groupings, such as the state, formed in the process of amalgamation of originally separate groups, such as masters and slaves or ethnic groups.

According to Gumplowicz, social and cultural evolution is a product of the struggle between social groups. Moore, as Outlines of Sociology and reissued by Irving L. Explaining Gender Convergence in Housework Time: Wars then take place between states, and the process of conquest and assimilation occurs again, on a larger scale. He assembled and developed in a well-integrated and systematic fashion the previously scattered suggestions relative to the social conditioning of political phenomena: He influenced the elitist theory of Gaetano Mosca.

During his life he was considered a Social Darwinistmainly because of his approach to society as an aggregate of groups struggling ruthlessly among themselves for domination. One, the polygenetic hypothesis, asserting that the species man evolved from various older types at many different times and in many different places, so that between the races there is no blood bond; and two, the hypothesis that an unsurmountable antagonism exists between different groups and races. Gumplowicz’s theories played a major role in reorienting American political science away from the study of public law and the structure of government and toward the process of politics by focusing on interest groups.


Medicine and health Music Names studies Performing arts Philosophy. An evaluation of Gumplowicz as a Jew is contained in “Scholar and Visionary: His theories are expressed chiefly in Der Rassenkampf [race conflict] and Grundriss der Soziologietr.

Ludwig Gumplowicz

His contributions to political science and jurisprudence were also important, but they consisted mainly of applications of his sociological generalizations to government and law.

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For discussion of the subsequent ludwiig of his ideas, see Conflict ; Constitutional lawarticle on Civil rights ; Lawarticle on the legal system and the biographies of Bentley ; Duguit ; Durkheim ; Laski ; Oppen heimer ; Ratzenhofer ; Small. Translated and edited, with an Introduction, by Irving L. Behavioral science, any of various disciplines dealing with the subject of human actions, usually including the fields of sociology, social and cultural anthropology, psychology, and behavioral aspects of biology, economics, geography, law, psychiatry, and political science.