Updated : Feb 15, 2020 in Literature


A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society. In cultural anthropology the term is the Anglicisation of rite de passage, a French term innovated by the ethnographer Arnold van The rest of Van Gennep’s book presents a description of rites of passage and. : The Rites of Passage (): Arnold van Gennep, Monika B. Vizedon, Gabrielle L. Caffee: Books. Turner, after fieldwork in Africa, read Arnold van Gennep’s Rites of. Passage (/) and realised that it made sense of his own findings. Van Gennep.

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The Rites of Passage – Arnold van Gennep – Google Books

For instance, Christians, Moslems, and Buddhists were forbidden to enter and stay in portions of the globe which did not adhere to their respective faiths. His studies included general linguistics, ancient and modern Arabic language, EgyptologyIslamic studies, and studies of the religions of primitive peoples.

Adventure education programs, such as Outward Boundhave often been described as potential rites of passage. The particular rites may include actual contact e. Originally published in English in This page was last edited on 6 Novemberat In other projects Wikimedia Commons. For every one of these events there are ceremonies whose essential purpose is to enable the individual to pass from one defined position to another which is equally well defined.

Ceremonies marking this transition enable people to experience this liminal phase, losing and then recreating their identity. The actual ceremonies may differ, but their meaning is universal—celebration of the transition from one phase of life to another:. Wherever there are fine distinctions among age or occupational groups, progression from one group to the next is accompanied by special acts, like those which make up apprenticeship in our trades.

This edition reprints the paperback edition of Because of the importance of these transitions, I think it legitimate to single out rites of passage as a special category, which under further [11] analysis may be subdivided into rites of separation, transition rites, and rites of incorporation. Retrieved 27 May However, in history this has not always been the case, leading others to regard the social group as a controlling force dominating individuals and taking away their freedom.

The Classification of Rites. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices: Van Gennep regarded rites of passage as essentially necessary for the normal and healthy life of society.

Moreover, it appears from Ciszewski’s monograph that in each local ceremony there is a combination of several of these uniting acts and that in all of them padsage occur one or more rites of exchange. Previous Arnold of Brescia. Often the sharing of meals is reciprocal, and there is thus an exchange of food which constitutes the confirmation of a bond.


Indirect contact may occur through a spokesman or through touching simultaneously or one after the other a sacred object, the statue of a local deity, or a “fetish post.

In and he conducted fieldwork in Algeriawriting on the role of women in Islamic society.

Arnold van Gennep

Inthough, he was expelled from the university, as a result of his criticism of the Swiss pro-German politics. Articles needing additional references from June All articles needing additional references CS1 French-language sources fr.

I have tried to assemble here all the ceremonial patterns which accompany a passage from one situation to another or from one cosmic or social world to another. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. In order for a group to survive, however, internal cohesion, as well as the continuity of the group through generations had to be achieved. Van Gennep was the first observer of human behaviour to note that the ritual ceremonies that accompany the landmarks of human life differ only in detail from one culture to another, and that they are in essence universal.

We should therefore include among ceremonies of human passage those rites occasioned by [4] celestial changes, such as the changeover from month to month ceremonies of the full moonfrom season to season festivals related to solstices and equinoxesand from year to year New Year’s Day. Cross Cultural Differences in Burial Practices.

Pamela Cushing researched the rites of passage impact upon adolescent youth at the Canadian Outward Bound School and found the rite of passage impact was lessened by the missing reincorporation phase. Social groups in such societies likewise have magico-religious foundations, and a passage from group to group takes on that special quality found in our rites of baptism and ordination.

He mentions some others, such as the territorial passage, a crossing of borders into a culturally different region, such as one where a different religion prevails. The universe itself is governed by a periodicity which has repercussions on human life, with stages and transitions, movements forward, and periods of relative inactivity.

Rite of passage

He believed that rites of passage preserve social stability by releasing the pressure built up in individuals through giving them new social status and new roles.

Some restrictions arnopd apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. The nobility, the world of finance, the working lez, retain their identities without regard–in theory at least–for national boundaries. These three sub-categories are not developed to the same extent by all peoples or in every ceremonial pattern.

Initiation rites are seen as fundamental to human growth and development as well as socialization in many African communities. Performed by Arabs, Turkish, Malaysian and Others of this faith”.


Enforcement of the interdiction may be immediate, or it passagee be mediated by frontier [15] divinities such as Hermes, Priapus, or the deities represented on the Babylonian kudurru. Initiation ritual of boys in Malawi. Common terms and phrases Africa age group Ainu animistic Arnold van Gennep baptism betrothal passagge Brahman bride ds price caste arnolx child childbirth childhood circumcision cited clan consecration Crawley dead death deceased deity Dieterich door dynamistic E.

References to this book Ethnography: Initiation rites are “a natural and necessary part of a community, just as arms and legs are natural and necessary extension of the human body”. To all the above-mentioned group distinctions, the semicivilized add still another—one for which our society has no real counterpart—a division into generation or age groups. All these rites should, it seems to me, be grouped together, though all the details of the proposed scheme cannot be worked out as yet.

A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.

THE RITES OF PASSAGE by Arnold van Gennep Translated by

More often the boundary is marked by an object—a stake, portal, or upright rock milestone or landmark whose ritse at that particular spot has been accompanied by rites of consecration. Captain Lyon has noted that the Eskimo consider a man their guest only for twenty-four hours?

Svmpathetic rites—those based on belief in the reciprocal action of like on like, of opposite on opposite, of the container and the contained, of the part and the whole of image and real object or real being, or word and deed. A betrothal forms a liminal fe between adolescence and gennpe, but the passage from adolescence to betrothal itself involves a special series of rites of separation, a transition, and an incorporation into the betrothed condition; and the passage from the transitional period, which is betrothal, to marriage itself, is made through a series of rites of separation from the former, followed by rites consisting of transition, and rites of incorporation into marriage.

So great is the incompatibility between the profane and the sacred worlds that a man cannot pass from one to the rutes without going through an intermediate stage.

He or she is “cutting away” the former self: