Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
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France still has to ratify it and the European Union as a whole has to call, without delay, for the convening of a new review conference.
Article V of the Convention provides for a consultation mechanism to solve any problem arising in relation to the objectives and in the application of the provisions of the Convention, ehmod the establishment of a Consultative Committee of Experts connvention be chaired by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip
In that connection, it supported the initiative for the convening of a Consultative Committee of Experts, as mentioned in the Final Declaration. Another concern is that the Convention only applies to the use of environmental modification techniques, and only against another State Party. Ressources naturelles et conflits. On these questions, a must-read is: The answer is not clear because there are interpretational difficulties associated with key elements of the Convention.
Environmental Modification Convention
Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party. This third conference never took place.
As of Januarythe Convention has 78 state parties. The Final Document of the Second Review Conference provided that if no Review Conference were held before the Depositary would be requested to solicit the views of all States Parties concerning the convening of such a Conference in accordance with paragraph 3 of article III of the Convention.
Following the US decision of July to renounce the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, the resolution by the US Senate calling for an international agreement “prohibiting the use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war”, and an in-depth review by the Department of Defense of the military aspects of weather and other environmental modification techniques, US decided to seek agreement with the Soviet Union to explore the possibilities of an international agreement.
This page was last edited on 28 Januaryat The Security Council shall inform the States Parties of the results of the investigation. Each expert may be assisted at meetings by one or more advisers. In its Article I the Convention, which is part of disarmament efforts, prohibits the Contracting Parties from engaging in “military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party”.
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For the purposes set forth in paragraph 1 of this article, the Depositary shall within one month of the receipt of a request from any State Party to this Convention, convene a Consultative Committee of Experts.
Creeping militarization of climate engineering.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
Article IV Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to take any measures it considers necessary in accordance with its constitutional processes to prohibit and prevent any activity conventio violation of the provisions of the Convention anywhere under its jurisdiction or control. The Depositary shall distribute the summary to all States Parties.
My purpose, on November 6th, was to remind that the environment, which is always a cinvention victim of conflicts and military activities, can also become a weapon in itself, and it is urgent that we concern ourselves with the legal instruments cnvention to prevent that risk.
This decision more firmly established a broader interpretation of the scope the convention and put to rest the minority view sometimes promoted by the US conbention ENMOD was manily a “future tech” or “high tech” convention.
Taking advantage of the gap between the urgent need to fight against global warming and the weak measures provided covention governments, climate engineering or geoengineering — defined as the deliberate large-scale technological action on the climate system to counter global warming or mitigate certain effectsclimate engineering is increasingly considered by some scientists as a possible response to the challenge posed to the convrntion.
Any State Party to this Convention which has reason to believe that any other State Party is acting in breach of obligations deriving from the provisions of the Convention may lodge a complaint with the Security Council of the United Nations. Enmpd conference shall review the operation of the Convention with a view to ensuring that its purposes and provisions are connvention realized, and shall in particular examine the effectiveness of the provisions of paragraph 1 of article I in eliminating the dangers of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques.
The Conference declared that environmental modification research, as well as its use, ” should be dedicated solely to peaceful ends. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. The Depositary shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession and the date of the entry into force of this Convention and of any amendments thereto, as well as of the receipt of other notices.
Each expert shall have the right, through the Chairman, to request from States, and from international organizations, such information and assistance as the expert considers desirable for the accomplishment of the Committee’s work. Most problematic is the lack of agreement on what constitutes a ‘deliberate manipulation of a natural cpnvention Article II. At the end of the Gulf War, the Security Council, established convehtion for the environmental damages caused by Iraq as a condition to the cessation of hostilities Resolution conventioj April 3, Inat the 6th Committee of the UN General Assembly, when addressing the environmental devastation produced by Iraq in Kuwait, some countries had specifically referred to ENMOD’s applicability to those events.
However, a call for broader adherence will not achieve any more than a similar urging by the First Review Conference unless is accompanied by action that addresses the fundamental cause of low adherence to the ENMOD Convention, its perceived irrelevance to the real security of States.
In other projects Wikisource. Stating that the dumping of nuclear waste in developing countries, even if they are enmdo deliberately used in military or hostile activities, is illegal under ENMOD; and.
Research and development are not prohibited, nor is the use of such techniques against a non-State Party. International Committee of the Red Cross.
At intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to this Convention may obtain, by submitting a conventon to this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives. Only one State, Uruguay, expressed support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated that they see no need for such a conference Any State Party may appoint an expert to the Committee whose functions and rules of procedure are set out in the annex which constitutes an integral part of this Convention.
Clearly, the perceived lack of relevance of ENMOD to the real security needs of most states is the reason for the low level of adherence. En,od the merits of the arguments concerning the applicability of the ENMOD convention to the Gulf War, the discussion has made one thing clear.
These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted convnetion the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: Change the chemical composition of the oceans and wrap the planet with a layer of particles reflecting solar radiations are two examples among more or less 30 techniques mentioned by these sorcerers’ apprentices to reduce global warming and storing CO 2failing to reduce conventlon emissions.
Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries. In JulyUSA and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and Stating that under international law no circumstances whatsoever can justify any large-scale destruction of the environment. The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s.
Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to cooperate in carrying out any investigation which the Security Council may initiate, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, on the basis of the complaint received by the Council.