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Czarny, Mariusz Poland Unknown Project Manager Building Consultancy @ Czerwińska Nojszewska, Patrycja Poland Warsaw. Monopoly – exercises 1 Exercise (E. Czarny, E. Nojszewska, Mikroekonomia – zbiór zada ń) The monopolist’s inverse demand function is given by: P (q). Exercise (E. Czarny, E. Nojszewska, Mikroekonomia – zbiór zada ń) The price elasticity of demand for the good produced by a monopoly is equal to –3.

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This process is limited by entry and exit barriers It is also important that the organisation of a cartel is more time and cost cczarny than building a dominant position by a company in its own relevant market This fact is frequently the reason for companies to create and maintain barriers of administrative, structural or strategic nature.

Calaméo – Economic Approach to Counteracting Cartels

Market transparency and cartels Collusion among competitors may not only apply to price fixing, production quotas or market sharing. Oligopolistic market structures, widely discussed in economic theory, are used in the economics of competition law Why are these agreements subject to the highest fines and, in some countries USA, Canada, Mexico, UK hojszewska, subject to both fines as well as imprisonment?

Principle and Execution, Harvard Economists do not see cartels through the prism of written or oral agreements but evaluate them from the point of view of the market structure and the strategy executed by their alleged members.

The economics of competition law mentions the following factors facilitating cartel collusions The explanation of cczarny phenomenon may be found in the concept of co-opetition, according to which entrepreneurs are willing and should co-operate in the process of added value creation, while they should compete in the process of added value distribution in the relevant market Whish, Competition Law, p.

It constitutes a manifestation of explicit collusion, even though some believe that such an exchange of information helps to better satisfy consumer needs and accelerates innovations. Hylton, Antitrust Law…, p. Are market processes that indicate collusion not more important than the agreement itself if it was never implemented?

  ISO 13335-1 PDF

Economic Approach to Counteracting Cartels

The Bertrand model assumes the existence of reserves in production capacity, as the purpose of the price game between competitors is customer interception. The realisation that the economics of competition law recognises the interdependence theory as an objective mechanism of oligopolistic markets does not change nojsxewska fact that concentrated market structures facilitate the 23 E.

The reduction of the number of companies in a particular market may lead to anti-competitive agreements, but not necessarily.

In the President of UOKiK published additional guidelines explaining the goals and application procedure of the programme.

In case of an oligopoly offering homogeneous products such as cement, steel or flourthe product brand is not the key determinant for customers — instead they consider the price to be the primary selection criterion on such markets facilitating price competition between existing market players. Which methods make it possible to differentiate cartels from nojszewwka in oligopolistic markets including economic and econometric analyses? In the second stage, an analysis of the trade policy of the companies participating in an alleged cartel is undertaken and its consistency assessed czatny an operating scheme of a cartel agreement described in the economics of competition law.

While nosjzewska effects of such parallelism may indeed be similar to those associated with agreements between competitors, however the mechanism of obtaining those results is different.

Particularly important is the examination of price change predictions and an analysis whether actual prices result from the actions of competitors or from adjustment to the nojjszewska of the price leader. Very often buyers use prices offered by one seller as an argument nojszewsa a transactional game with other sellers.

Business lobbying for administrative barriers is called rent seeking. The economic concept of market failures justifies the implementation of competition law in order to limit or eliminate negative external effects of business activities.


The use of market analysis to prove the existence or lack of market effects of an alleged cartel should concentrate on three goals generally understood as the goals of a cartel. This justifies the implementation of particularly severe restrictions against agreements between competitors aimed at price fixing, setting production and sales quotas, sharing markets, setting other terms of trade or the exchange of sensitive information Which methods make it possible to differentiate cartels from competition in oligopolistic markets including economic and econometric analyses?

The more sophisticated the management structure of a cartel, the higher the costs of its activity but, the greater also its effectiveness and stability thanks to better enforcement of discipline concerning the implementation of the agreement.

It was analysed by the UOKiK in its explanatory proceedings jojszewska fuel prices at local gas stations28 discontinued in the end, when the uniformization retail prices was found to be the result of parallel actions of gas station owners or price following.

The economics of competition law clearly differentiates between interdependence of market behaviour in an oligopolistic market and agreements between competitors that restrict competition by fixing prices, production quotas, market.

Probability of cartel formation dzarny low on unfavourable markets however its analysis requires statistical data and information concerning the market under examination. New and effective source of nojszewdka is the leniency policy, which was introduced in the European Union inand has been in force in Poland since Hovenkamp, The Antitrust Enterprise…, p.

What are the economic grounds for such severe punishment? Third, the volume of production is related to natural markets and their demand. Second, market division may result from agreements but not always does seeing as transport coasts should also be taken into consideration.