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The created arable surface on one terrace depended much on the given relief conditions of the ridge where the terrace was constructed.

The analysis proves an excellent adaptation of the terrace structures to local topography. It should be noted that a terrace system is in this study considered an interconnected area of terraces, which are generally constructed on one ridge or slope and limited by orographic conditions of the terrain, such as waterlines, deep gorges, steep or vertical rock walls or other limitations, like huge boulders of several meters of height.

First, one exemplary soil profile is presented, then the results from the soil quality parameters investigated in this study are shown, followed by the parameters regarding stability of the terrace system under investigation, namely bulk density and water infiltration capacity.

The density was calculated with the following formula: In regard to accessing traditional knowledge on how the land was managed and which practices have been applied over centuries the qualitative interviews gave deep insights that could not have been accessed otherwise. The most eminent feature of this anthropogenic landscape change is agricultural terraces, which are extremely solid in structure muudar thus resilient to erosion and collapse.

Afterwards the dried samples were cooled down and their dry weight measured. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment74pp. Journal for Nature Conservation14pp. Farmers have introduced technologies to improve the given conditions: Furthermore, the stratigraphy of the terrace soil body has been studied.


Landscape and Urban Planning70pp. This selection of informants assures a good coverage of the topic in question and permits sampling of very specialized knowledge.

Ela tem outros interesses, como brincar, por exemplo. Revista Geonorte1 4pp. In this study, the bulk density of the soil was the parameter in question since it contributes to soil quality and stability of terrace systems.

Living Terraces in Ethiopia: We have identified three different types of dry-stone walls and an earth wall, constructed without the aid of any stone material. Some small branches were used afterwards as fuel wood and the eaten parts of the fodder became manure. While KIA did not provide reliable results, 25 the second sample KIA revealed that the charcoal was, with a probability of Over centuries the exchange with other settlements around was limited; respectively, traditions, specific tools, working techniques and the best practices have evolved with little external influence.

In the interviews most farmers explained three remarkable traditional practices in regard to maintaining a high soil organic matter content: And finally, in Antikythera GreeceBevan et al. Instituto de lingua e cultura portuguesa.

The charcoals that resulted from the incineration of small and medium sized wood pieces were either left on the surface or worked into the terrace soil. In Terceira Lombada it was a common practice to collect leaves from the forest floor and bring them onto the terraces as additional fertilizer.

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Landscape and Urban Planning24pp. The ongoing abandonment of agricultural activities on the terraces, created and maintained by generations of farmers over centuries, does not only leave a fragile landscape with unmaintained terrace walls, but puts a huge amount of traditional knowledge on sustainable land use at risk. Another important characteristic of andosols is a predominately low bulk density, resulting from a well-developed pore system. The shape of this hoe varies according to the prevailing soil type in a valley and the percentage of stones on the average terraces.


The only way of accessing this knowledge, which has never been written down, is by conducting interviews with farmers still working traditionally in the respective area — a technique that has fzo applied pra many studies addressing human-landscape interaction e.


There is further indication for the former, natural soil type: This function is very valuable for the inhabitants of the parish, especially since the region of Madeira is known for its frequent flash-flood events Quintal ; Baioni According to the dating results of the sample KIA the charcoal is, with a certainty of Flattish areas with thick layers of soil were preferred to areas with a likely better solar exposure, but less favorable terrain par.

They served as stables for livestock and storage of hay or dried common brackon Pteridium aquilinium. The comparatively thin dry-stone wall with only one layer of stones fqo supporting wall is similar to the other profiles investigated in terms of rock type used. In the interviews cross-validation of information given by interview partners was an important issue, questions on the same topic were directed to several people in order to reduce possible bias in the provided information.

Although this area is closest to the village and facing east, it was terraced last – probably due to a difficult access to irrigation water and muddar steepness of the terrain. Ontem um bangladeshiano me deu mais umas dicas e fiquei maravilhado ao ver que eu conseguia tacar a bola pra la e rebater depois!

This method prevents compaction of the soil and thus distortion of the original volume used for analysis. In this case one ring had a diameter of 30 cm and the second one a diameter of 60 cm.

Landscape Ecology7 1pp.