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Magyar: Béla király Névtelen Jegyzője krónikájának első lapja A GESTA HUNGARORUM egyetlen kéziratos példánya, a tiroli Ambras várának. Anonymus and Master Roger: Gesta Hungarorum: Anonymi Bele Regis Notarii An anonymous notary of King Bela (probably Bela III) of Hungary wrote a Latin. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Oct 1, , Martyn Rady and others published The Gesta Hungarorum of Anonymus, the Anonymous Notary of King Bela.

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Later documents give the form Zenthmaria, which can suggest that the older name can be understood as Sancta Maria. Ohio State University Hesta. According to the Anonymous Notary, Arpad gave to Tuhutum the right to conquer and rule Transylvania, but one of the heirs of Tuhutum, Geula, betrayed Stephen I, who was the inheritor of Arpad. The theory of the Pannonian origin of the Balkan Vlachs was expressed by B.

Gesta Hungarorum | Europe Between East And West

The Deeds of the Hungarians Prologuep. This new kind of evidence is not the single reason for the new approach which we propose in this book.

In Transylvania and Hungary, the name Olachi, of popular origin and more adapt- ed to the Hungarian language, replaced the older one only after the middle of the 13th century. The work of Regino tells how the Hungarians were expelled from Scythia by the Pechenegs, called Pecinaci.

The phase I b is dated between and the fourth decade of the 10th century. The existence of the Blaci the Romanians at the moment of the Hungarian aggression could not be denied. Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c. The use of this cemetery began in the second half of the 10th century and continued until the 11th century. III, as the outer limit of a space used for dwelling. Salanus continued to keep strong ties with Bulgaria in c.

Unlike them, the Romance population was too insignificant and this explains the silence huhgarorum the same sources a situation similar to that of the North-Danubian Romanians, who were deprived of any superior form of political and religious organization.

I chopped down the cherry tree. Verancsics opposed the idea of moving the bish- opric to a city considered to have been built by a Romanian, Gelou. We do not under- stand why gesfa hypothesis was even expressed.


The Hungarian warriors also conquered another fort, Ursoua. Unlike the Hungarians, they were a sedentary population and produced pottery. However, the Anonymous Notary made some mistakes, among which the most important was the name of the Hungarian conqueror of northern Transylvania. The oral tradition does not hungadorum the real chronol- ogy.

The tradition was invent- anonymlus by the medieval writers, who needed an explanation for the exis- tence and origin of the Romanian shepherds in Hungary. Some historians considered that the Bulgarians were allied with the Hungarians inwhen they won a great victory against the Anonymoua at Acheloo,45 but the interpretation of the sources the Arabian chronicles of Al Masoudi and Ibn-al-Ahtir was disputed they concern most probably hnugarorum Hungarian and Pecheneg attacks from Since none of these names has any meaning in Romanian, it results that they were created when the Slavs were not yet assimilated.

Tendentious in their content, the gestae always searched for this legitimacy into a remote past in gewta Biblical ages or in the Roman era. The work exists in a sole manuscript. The Anonymous Notary made a confusion between Geula, son of Horca, and the real conqueror of Transylvania; because it was not suitable to ascribe the conquest annoymous a ruler who was a gylas, he introduced Tuhutum in the narrative built up on the basis of some oral sources. III and IV is dated in the phase 2 of the first stage, but it is possible that some dwellings were made before the first precincts, when the settlement was not fortified.

In conclusion, the pendant is older than precinct no. He claimed that the Romanians came to northern Pannonia from central Pannonia or from northern Transylvania after the 6th century Slavic migrations.

So who was the anonymous author of this famous flawed work?

File:Gesta Hungarorum Anonymous.jpg

Galad, a monastery attested since in the Serbian Banat, near Kikinda and the place called Pusta-Galad ; 2. Minstrels anonymos folk-singers reciting heroic songs were well-known figures of the age of Anonymus. The present English translation con- tains many corrections and additions.

For this reason it is possible that the accessory belonged to a destroyed grave, namely to an Old Hungarian grave, because this kind of object is dated only in the first third or the first half of the 10th century. Hungarorym have some common elements that cannot be explained otherwise the Old Russian chronicle was unknown to the Hungarian authors. The residence of this duke at Belgrade Alba Bulgariae 11 is in agreement hungaroum the expansion of the duchy of Bulgaria over this area, hungarorjm the disappearance of the Sirmium theme in In the following subchapter we will see that another Roman city, Apulum, became in the same 10th century the center of another polity.


The codex was preserved in Vienna since the beginning of the 17 th century, but nobody knows how it was obtained. In another interpretation, the Salanus episode reflects the memory of Svatopluk, the ruler of Moravia.

The city of Morisena Cenad is mentioned in GH as still in existence. The fortress was restored after some time, in a different technique.

Gesta Hungarorum – Wikipedia

The problem of the existence of the Romanians in Tran- sylvania in the period described by GH does not depend on the internal criticism of this source.

Quod sic factum est. The historical memories are always updated according to the realities of the present. Two examples are enough to illustrate this: It was written by an unidentified author who has traditionally been called Anonymus in scholarly works. Tunc habitatores terre videntes mortcm domini sui, sua propria voluntate dextram dantes dominum sibi elegerunt Tuhutum, patrem Horca, et in loco illo qui dicitur Esculeu, fidem cum iuramento firmaverunt; et a die illo locus ille nuncupatus est Esculeu eo, quod ibi iuraverunt.

Brezeanu believed, but the ancient Paeoni, who lived exactly in the same places where the Vlachs dwelled in the time of Zonaras, that is, in Macedonia.

Popa-Lisseanu gave the following version: In this case, the best solu- tion could be the identification proposed by G. They provided only hyngarorum vague explanation but plausible for the read- ers for the way in which Transylvania had been conquered. The Romanians were anachronically transferred to the age of Attila, because their existence during the reign of Arpad was remembered. These Pannoni were identified with the Romance population.

For the history of Moravia, GH gives other details not present in the work of Simon hngarorum Keza, but which stirred a long debate.