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Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, which were discovered in waste-water sludge in the early s, have the unique metabolic ability to. TY – JOUR. T1 – Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application. AU – Kuenen, JG. PY – Y1 – KW – CWTS <= JFIS < M3 - Article. VL - 6. Anammox bacteria oxidize ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as an electron accepter The discovery of anammox process brought revolutionary changes to In order to fulfill practical application of anammox process.

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The second approach mentioned previously significantly shortens the required time for anammox start-up under the premise of large quantity of anammox sludge but is usually limited by the lack of anammox sludge.

Introduction Conventional biological nitrogen removal from wastewater usually consists of two steps, nitrification and denitrification. This page was last edited on 12 Decemberat Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. In summary, there are two main approaches strategies to start up an anammox reactor: The formed hydrazine or imine could thereafter be converted by the enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase to dinitrogen gas, and the reducing equivalents produced in the reaction are required to combine NO or HNO and ammonium or to reduce nitrite to NO.

Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation: From Laboratory to Full-Scale Application

In this pathway Figure 4there are two enzymes unique to anammox bacteria: Van Der Star, Go. Seeding with enriched anammox sludge is more feasible than starting from scratch. During nitrification process, ammonium is biologically oxidized to nitrate, which is then reduced to nitrogen gas using organic matter as electron donor during denitrification process. View at Google Scholar C. The gradual construction of full-scale anammox plants increases the availability of anammox sludge.


Although starting up the reactor from scratch is universal, inoculation with highly enriched anammox sludge is more feasible. Whether the reduction of nitrite and the oxidation of hydrazine occur at different sites of the same enzyme Figure 3 a or the reactions are catalyzed by different enzyme systems connected via an electron transport chain Figure 3 b remains to be investigated.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application › TU Delft Research Information System

Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Anammox process was designed to have a capacity for conversion of 11 tons of nitrogen per day, almost ten times larger than the largest plant built before Possible biochemical pathway and cellular localization of the enzyme systems involved in anammox reaction. Van De Vossenberg, J.

Later, anammox bacteria were identified as planctomycetes[24] and the first identified anammox organism was named Candidatus ” Brocadia anammoxidans. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation anammox is a novel, autotrophic, and cost-effective alternative to the traditional biological nitrogen removal process [ 5 — 7 ]. Playing an important part in the biological nitrogen cycle, this unique process makes great contribution to our environment and economy.

Jetten Advances in microbial physiology Currently, five anammox genera have been discovered: The brief description of worldwide full-scale anammox plants implemented by Paques a. The process was named “anammox,” and was realized to have great significance in the removal of unwanted ammonium.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application

Growth of anammox bacteria using basal medium with L-amino acids. These experiments showed that ammonium was biologically oxidized with hydroxylamine, most likely derived from nitrite, as the probable electron applivation.

Jetten, “The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnologyvol.


Here, we would like to mention the Paques BV Balk, The Netherlands for its unremitting efforts on the practical application of anammox process.

The slow growth rate of anammox bacteria with the approximate doubling time of 11 days is the major obstacle for implementation of anammox process [ 8 ]. Conventional biological nitrogen removal from wastewater usually consists of two steps, nitrification and denitrification. Uses authors parameter Bxcteria articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March This first full-scale reactor on the other hand had a pilot plant character.

Schematic diagram of the anammox nonwoven membrane reactor ANMR [ 4041 ].

Currently, at least 30 full-scale anammox systems are operational. It is well known that all anammox bacteria belong to the same monophyletic order named the Appoication and are related to the Planctomycetales. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a tropical freshwater system Lake Tanganyika.

Both processes can take place in 1 reactor where two guilds of bacteria form compact granules. This paper reviews the development of anammox process and relative studies in the laboratory, especially the discovery and biochemistry of the bacteria responsible for anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application.

Known species are divided over five genera: In the same year, the biological nature of anammox was identified. Abcteria 30 full-scale anammox plants are in operation around the world.

Many efforts have been made on the development of a marketable product.